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Review Article

Sensitivity of the Developing Human Foetus in the First and Second Trimesters to Antigenic Challenge: A Study from 1978 to 2002 with Subsequent Follow-up

Prof Niranjan Bhattacharya, Dr Subhas Mukherjee, Dr BC Roy




Millions of women die due to unsafe abortion conducted unethically. WHO estimates close to 13% of unsafe abortion is the main cause of all maternal deaths. The methods of abortion are dilatation and curettage, dilatation and evacuation, manual vacuum aspiration and electrical vacuum aspiration. Other surgeries include hysterotomy ligation or even hysterotomy. Medical induction of abortion is another option for abortion. A group of medical researchers searched for a safe, cheap, effective, mid-trimester abortifacient like tetanus toxoid and BCG. Intraamniotic tetanus toxoid antigen challenge in up to 9 weeks of gestation to 10-16 weeks leads to massive haemorrahage and also there are congestion of viscera and changes in the growing architecture of foetal organs lead to death and abortion. A single 2 ml intra-amniotic injection of tetanus toxoid was mediated by a group of researchers which resulted in 92.80% of abortion of foetuses. The Ethical Committee restricted the use of BCG experimentation on the plea that persistence of placenta or any other foetal tissue in the maternal system that may have the possibility of inducing hydatiform mole or choriocarcinomatous changes in the mothers in the long run. It is worth mentioning that in the case of multiple injections of tetanus toxoid through the intra-amniotic route, there is marginal improvement in the cumulative abortion rate. There are many changes in the foetal organ architecture postfoetal challenge with antigen. A comparison of the aborted placentas of 18 weeks and non-aborted placentas after antigen challenge and blank antigen (normal saline + preservative) challenge showed certain definite challenges. A new concept in vaccination of the unborn had been started by the same researches. The group has suggested that vaccination of the unborn via the intra-amniotic or intrafoetal route is not feasible as it has serious side-effects. The researchers further believe that this abortion pattern can be due to the auto-immune reaction or even unnamed inflammations of the basics which are still to be elucidated.


, , manual vacuum aspiration, electrical vacuum aspiration, tetanus toxoid, BCG, abortifacient, antigenic challenge, foetal immune system, intra-amniotic injection, amniotic cavity, target cells, vaccination of the unborn

Journal: Medical Glory Vol 4, Issue No 3, July-September, 2020


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